Minimally Invasive Procedures for Kidney Cancer & Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer PSA - Part 1: The Basics

PSA - Part 1: The Basics

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Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) are indicators of Prostate Cancer. It is a substance secreted by the prostate that can be found in the blood. PSA levels can not only indicate Prostate Cancer, but other Prostate Diseases as well. If your PSA is high or steadily rising a biopsy of your prostate may be required to assess your risk of Prostate Cancer.


WHEN DO I TEST?

Men 40 years of age or older who have been well-informed, wish to be screened, and have at least a 10-year life expectancy can be offered early detection and risk assessment by using prostate-specific antigen testing (PSA) and digital rectal exams (DRE). The earlier you test...
the sooner AMIU can benchmark your PSA levels and detect any probable rise in PSA levels. Further, the younger you are, the more options for treatment are available for you.

THE RISK OF ANY INDICATOR

There is no "safe" PSA value. A man may have very low PSA count but still have biopsy-detectable prostate cancer. Higher age, African American ethnicity, and family history of prostate cancer increase the risk of prostate cancer for any given level of PSA.

HOW DOES PSA REACH THE BLOOD?

Fig. 1

Prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone. Here, they produce factors such as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) that might act on bone remodelling cells to facilitate the formation of blastic lesions. The balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity is tilted towards bone formation. Within the osteoblast, phosphatase and calcium act on the mineral, apatite, to induce growth of the crystal and bone formation. This process results in the release of peptides such as PAP and bone structural proteins into the bloodstream. These peptides can be used as markers for metastatic prostate cancer. DPD, deoxypyridinoline.

-Bloodborne biomolecular markers in prostate cancer development and progression, Robert A. Bok & Eric J. Small. Nature Reviews Cancer 2, 918-926 (December 2002). doi:10.1038/nrc951

 

PSA ATTACKS EJACULATE FLUIDS

Fig. 2

The primary biological function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is to cleave factors in the semen to aid liquifaction and fertilization (a). In carcinogenesis of the prostate, PSA acts on various molecules to potentially enhance proliferation, cell detachment, invasion and metastasis (b). IGF1, insulin-like growth factor 1; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein; TGF-beta, transforming growth factor-beta.

-Bloodborne biomolecular markers in prostate cancer development and progression, Robert A. Bok & Eric J. Small. Nature Reviews Cancer 2, 918-926 (December 2002). doi:10.1038/nrc951

Last modified on Friday, 21 January 2011 15:49

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